Tuesday, March 16, 2010
The most essential commodity in most of the households is also likely to be more expensive. The state government has already hiked the prices of milk from Jan. 1. Aarey milk which was available at Rs 21 per litre and Rs 10.50 for half litre, is now available at Rs 22 per litre while consumers will have to pay Rs 10.50 for half litre packet. Pawar hinted two days ago that the prices of milk can go up still further. Brands like Gouku, Amul, Mahanandl and Warna, which have considerable sale in Mumbai and Pune have increased the purchase rate of milk from this week. The milk of these brands will now be available from Rs 26 to Rs 30 per litre. At the national level, the prices of milk are up by 13.95 percent within last one year .
According to figures available with government of India, the country ranks first among the world's milk producing nations. However, the use of the milk has been diversified in so many ways that the actual supply is always low than that of the demand. The per capita availability of milk was 252 gm per day during 2007-08.
The growth rate of milk production over the past three decades till 9th five year plan was around 4% against the growth rate of about 2% of India's population. Various schemes undertaken by the State as well as the Governments made this possible.
This success story apart, diversion of milk for other products and increasing demand has put this item open for adulteration. Unlike old times, when only water was mixed, now a plethora of chemicals are being used.
WAYS TO CHECK PURITY
HOW PURE IT IS?
According to government, There is no such thing as “artificial milk/synthetic milk.” Under the Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Rules, 1955, milk is defined as the normal mammary secretion derived from complete milking of an healthy milk animal without either addition thereto or extraction there from. It shall be free from colostrum. Milk of different classes and of different designations shall conform to the standards laid down under the provisions of PFA Rules, 1955.
As per rule 44(l) of the PFA Rules, 1955, sale of milk and milk products containing substances not found in milk except as prescribed in the Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955, is prohibited.
TESTS TO DETECT ADULTERATION IN MILK
There are many methods known for detection of adulteration in milk but the methods discussed below are simple but rapid and sensitive methods to detect adulteration.
DETECTION OF NEUTRALIZERS IN MILK
1) Rosalic acid test (Soda Test) :
In milk neutralizers like hydrated lime, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate are added which are generally prohibited.
How To Detect?
Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 5 ml alcohol followed by 4-5 drops of rosalic acid. If the colour of milk changes to pinkish red, then it is inferred that the milk is adulterated with sodium carbonate / sodium bicarbonate and hence unfit for human consumption.
This test will be effective only if the neutralizers are present in milk. If the added neutralizers are nullified by the developed acidity, then this test will be negative. In that case, the alkaline condition of the milk for the presence of soda ash has to be estimated.
TEST FOR DETECTION OF FORMALIN
Formalin (40%) is poisonous though it can preserve milk for a long time.
How to detect?
Take 10 ml of milk in test tube and 5 ml of conc. sulphuric acid is added on the sides of the test tube with out shaking. If a violet or blue ring appears at the intersection of the two layers, then it shows the presence of formalin.
Test for detection of sugar in milk
Generally sugar is mixed in the milk to increase the solids not fat content of milk i.e. to increase the lactometer reading of milk, which was already diluted with water.
How to detect?
Take 10 ml of milk in a test tube and add 5 ml of hydrochloric acid along with 0.1 g of resorcinol. Then shake the test tube well and place the test tube in a boiling water bath for 5 min. Appearance of red colour indicates the presence of added sugar in milk.
TEST FOR DETECTION OF STARCH
Addition of starch also increases the SNF content of milk. Apart from the starch, wheat flour, arrowroot, rice flour are also added.
How to detect?
Take 3 ml milk in a test tube and boil it thoroughly. Then milk is cooled to room temperature and added with 2 to 3 drops of 1% iodine solution. Change of colour to blue indicates that the milk is adulterated with starch.
TEST FOR DETECTION OF GLUCOSE
Usually poor quality glucose is added to milk to increase the lactometer reading. There are two tests available to detect the adulteration of milk with glucose.
How to proceed?
1. Phosphomolybdic or Barford Test
Take 3 ml of milk in a test tube and add 3 ml Barford's reagent and mix it thoroughly. Then keep it in a boiling water bath for 3 min and then cool it for 2 min by immersing in tap water with out disturbance. Then add 1 ml of phosphomolybdic acid and shake. If blue colour is visible, then glucose is present in the milk sample.
2. Diacetic test
Take a strip of diacetic strip and dip it in the milk for 30 sec to 1 min. If the strip changes colour, then it shows that the sample of milk contains glucose. If there is no change in the colour of the strip, then glucose is absent. In this method the presence of glucose in milk can be quantified by comparing the colour developed with the chart strip.
What if it is not pure?
The common consumer who receives his milk daily do not suspect it to be impure. But the changing trend of adulteration has made it compulsory for all to check the quality of the food products they use in their homes. This include, least of all, the milk. Once you are sure that the milk you have in your home does not conform to the standards set by government or is not fit to be given to your children, then there are certain ways you can counter that.
The Ministry of Health & Foods has made BIS Certification mandatory in respect of 11 food articles under the PFA Rules, 1955. These items include Milk Powder, Condensed milk, partly skimmed and skimmed condensed milk, Sweetened ultra high temperature treated condensed milk, Skimmed milk powder, standard grade, Skimmed milk powder (extra grade), Partly skimmed milk powder. Under the prevention of Food Adulteration Act, in Maharashtra, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for the implementation / enforcement of the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules, 1955. The enforcement staff draw random samples of various articles of food and take penal action against the offenders where the samples are not found to be conforming to the provisions of the PFA Act, 1954 and Rules, 1955.
Sale of any adulterated and misbranded article of food is an offence punishable with minimum imprisonment of six months and with fine, which shall not be less than Rs.1000/-. In case adulterated foodstuff causes death or grievous hurt, the offence is punishable with imprisonment, which may extend to term of life and with fine which shall not be less than Rs.5000/-.
The government claims to have tightened noose around dairy traders, who indulge in adulteration of milk. The authorities have arrested at least 25 milk in last six months. They have been booked under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act. However, the practise of milk adulteration goes unabated, particularly during summers, when the yield is less. According to sources, some dairy farmers use mixture of sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, vegetable oil and detergents to increase the volume and fat content of milk, while some use urea mixed with water. Another rampant practise amongst the dairy owners is the indiscriminate use of oxytocin, a steroid given to the cattle to increase milk yield. Prolonged use of milk laced with this steroid can show symptoms of early maturity among boys and girls.
Despite making tall claims, the department of animal husbandry, department of food and drug administration and department of health have been unable to curb the menace. In the wake of the milk adulteration cases unearthed in Pune district, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after consulting the Pune District Co-operative Milk Producers' Federation and 150 dairy owners prepared a 13-point precautionary draft. It has been circulated to all dairy owners in Pune, Sangli and Kolhapur districts. A similar meeting was held for milk producers in Sangli and Kolhapur in early September and a similar draft was discussed and prepared for circulation to milk producers in these districts.
The draft explains the FDA rules and regulations, and the dos an don'ts when it comes to buying sealed packets of milk. The FDA said it would will regularly inspect set-ups of milk producers and dairy owners to check if they are abiding by the rules and regulations, and check if the milk is being tested before it is sent to distributors and agencies.
It is is a moot question whether this will pave the way for us getting a safe and healthy milk. This food item is cheifly consumed by children which are the future of the country. If we are unbale to provide pure milk to our future of the nation, how can we achieve the goal of being a superpower in year 2020. This fact is especially serious in the backdrop of the fact that India is a country with maximum population falling in young age group. Within ten years from now, this young briagde will take on the stage of our public life. Are we ready to find weak, disease infected and unsupportive population. If not, then it is our collective responsibility now to stop this menace at the doorstep itself. This is a question of our future as a nation.
How the ball started rolling
The issue of milk adulteration in Pune came to light in the month of August last year when the food and drugs administration unearthed a racket supplying synthetic milk to Pune from a village in Phaltan taluka of Satara district. The racket was found to be using palmolein oil, Sorbitol (sugar alcohol) and sodium lauryl ether sulfate (a detergent) to make milk and sell it in five districts. A series of raids in Satara, Solapur, Ahmednagar and Kolhapur districts followed.
In September also the Pune Rural police seized 17,000 litres of adulterated milk from a dairy in Patas, a village near Pune, which is a supplier to a Mumbai-based dairy. The seized goods included quantities of milk to which had been added lactose powder, milk powder and caustic soda to increase the fat content.
The findings of adulterated milk in Maharashtra prompted the state government to make protein-testing mandatory for dairies before they procure milk. If milk fails this test, dairies have been instructed to treat it as adulterated and immediately destroy it, an official concerned with the development said.
Known in the industry as Pyne’s method, the six minute test uses potassium oxalate, phenolphthalein indicator and neutral formaldehyde to estimate the percentage of protein in the milk.
Food adulteration is a cognisable and non-bailable offence in Maharashtra following the state amendment in the food adulteration prevention act in January 2008.
The adulterants being chemically inactive, increase the density of the milk, but reduce the protein levels. Any adulteration in milk, including with water instantly disturbs the protein content in the milk.
After the action by the administration, it was reported that millk supply to city had fallen by 40%. The culprits of that racket have been arrested by the police. The persons involved in the racket were highly educated and they used such sophisticated methods that the FDA had to take National Chemical Laboratory's help.
The surprised engineer said that he knew nothing about dairying and he had applied for Metallurgical Engineering. But Gwyer told him that he has to chose it or leave it since there was only one scholarship left. The engineer accepted the only scholarship he was offered. Thus began the journey of one of India's most notable personality and father of the White Revoution in India, Dr. Verghese Kurien.
Behind Amul products lies a successful history of cooperative dairy farming in India. Kurien, also nicknamed the 'Milkman of India', played a crucial role in the development of Gujarat Cooperative Milk and Marketing Federation Ltd which launched Amul.
Based in Anand, a town in Gujarat, Amul is a dairy cooperative movement joined by about 2 and half million milk producers in Gujarat. The number of members of the cooperative has continued to increase with the numbers of women members and Women's Dairy Cooperative Societies also increasing significantly.
Kurien worked in Anand dairy started by Tribhuvandas Patel, an aide of Vallabhbhai Patel. He had united the disorganised farmers and started a co-operative dairy unit. But Patel found it difficult to compete with a British dairy in Mumbai. Patel sought this clever young engineer's assistance. Kurien helped Tribuvandas Patel to set up a processing plant. This marked the birth of Amul. Dr. Kurien was born in Calicut on 26th November 1921. He got his first degree in physics and he studied B.E Mechanical Engineering at the University of Madras. He passed the M.S. degree with distinctions in USA. He was also very good at cricket, tennis and boxing. When he returned to India, he joined Anand dairy as a dairy Engineer. But he felt it was not a challenging job for him.
Thus he agreed to help Patel in setting up a milk processing plant. Dr. Kurien developed the Amul Dairy Unit into the largest co-operative dairy in India. As a result of Dr. Kurien's relentless efforts, the poor milk producers were protected from being exploited. He introduced various reforms in the administration of Amul Dairy. He proposed to distribute half of its profit to the milk producers as dividend. Dr.Kurien made India the largest milk producer of the world.
Dr. Kurien established the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and designed the “Operation Flood Programme.” He has been honoured with very high civilian awards such as Padmashri and Padmabhushan. His achievements were recognised internationally and he was awarded the prestigious Ramon Magsaysay Award for community leadership.
“Milk means freedom”-the message was spread among the poor and landless. In the Amul model procurement, processing & marketing is in the hands of the farmers. A massive network involves collecting milk from more than 12 million farmers, testing, grading and transporting twice a day from 1,00,000 villages over 10,000 routes to about 180 dairyplants. It is later followed by processing ,packing,and sending the milk to the market in almost 800 big and small towns every single day of the year.
Operation Flood: one of the world's largest rural development programmes.
Launched in 1970, Operation Flood has helped dairy farmers direct their own development, placing control of the resources they create in their own hands. A National Milk Grid links milk producers throughout India with consumers in over 700 towns and cities, reducing seasonal and regional price variations while ensuring that the producer gets fair market prices in a transparent manner on a regular basis.
The bedrock of Operation Flood has been village milk producers' cooperatives, which procure milk and provide inputs and services, making modern management and technology available to members.
Veterinary first-aid health care services, feed and artificial insemination services for cooperative members were extended, along with intensified member education. “Operation Flood can be viewed as a twenty year experiment confirming the Rural Development Vision," said World Bank Report in 1997.
Pasteurized milk is milk which has been heat-treated to kill pathogens which cause disease. Not all pathogens are removed during the pasteurization process, so pasteurized milk is not 100% sterile, but many people consider it to be safer to drink than raw milk which has not been pasteurized at all. The bulk of the milk sold in commercial grocery stores is pasteurized, and much of it is also homogenized to prevent the cream from separating.
The pasteurization process is named for Louis Pasteur, a noted French microbiologist. Pasteur made a number of notable discoveries in the field of microbiology, developing techniques which are still used today to reduce the risk of disease. In 1862, he performed early pasteurization tests, determined to render milk safe to drink, and the practice was adopted very quickly. Before pasteurization, improperly handled and stored milk caused widespread disease, especially in urban areas, where several unrefrigerated days might elapse between the cow and the end consumer.
There are several different pasteurization techniques which can be used to make pasteurized milk. The goal of pasteurization is to render the milk safe to drink without curdling or coagulating it, and without altering the flavor substantially, although people who are accustomed to drinking unpasteurized milk may find that pasteurized milk has an “off” flavor.
In high temperature/short time (HTST) pasteurization, the milk is brought to a temperature of 161 degrees Fahrenheit (71.7 degrees Celsius) and held there for 15 to 30 seconds before being rapidly cooled and packaged. Double pasteurization splits the process up into two segments, and is not recognized as a legal pasteurization method by some governments. Extended shelf life (ESL) milk is pasteurized at a slightly lower temperature and passed through a special filter to remove microbes. Ultra high temperature (UHT) pasteurization involves bringing the milk to 250 degrees Fahrenheit (138 degrees Celsius) for less than a second, while batch pasteurization is performed at a very low temperatur=e, with the milk being held to temperature for 30 minutes before being cooled.
Even after pasteurization, milk is not totally stable. It will go bad within two to three weeks under refrigeration, with the exception of UHT milk, which can be held at room temperature in aseptic packaging for up to three months. Pasteurization also doesn't eliminate the risk of contamination along the supply line, as for instance in the case of pasteurized milk which is pumped through contaminated piping, and it doesn't eliminate heat-resistant organisms, although it does get rid of many common pathogens.
The benefit of pasteurization is that it renders milk much safer to drink. However, it also destroys some of the enzymes present in the milk, including enzymes which make milk easier to digest. It also alters the flavor of the milk, although people who are accustomed to pasteurized milk may not be aware of the difference between fresh raw milk and pasteurized milk. As a result of these drawbacks, some people prefer raw milk, despite its dangers.
When a cow is milked, and as the milk settles, a layer of cream forms at the top of the milk. This used to be the way people would judge the quality of milk. A thicker layer of cream meant better quality milk, and especially when milk was still normally sold in bottles, you could easily see into the bottle to judge the cream layer.
Homogenized Milk-The next Step
Pasteurization had become standardized for milk in most countries, since heating the milk destroys any bacteria in it, making the milk safer to drink. Homogenized milk was the next step. Pasteurized milk could still easily have milk fat proteins separate from the rest of the milk. For some people this was viewed as a disadvantage, though others argue homogenized milk doesn't taste as good.
Since milk is an oil and water combination, it doesn't stay mixed. Homogenized milk is run through tiny tubes, sometimes during the pasteurization process to keep fat and liquid molecules together. Fat molecules are reduced in size and tend to disperse more evenly throughout the milk so that creaming on the top of milk doesn't occur. You can also use the homogenization process to reduce overall milkfat in milk. 2% milk is stripped of some of the fat molecules to produce lower fat milk
Homogenized milk also helps deal with a side effect of pasteurization. When milk is heated, the white cells and bacteria collect on the bottom of the milk, forming a thick, and many think, disagreeable layer. When milk has been fed thorough a small tube or orifice, this bottom layer gets mixed through the milk. The process of making homogenized milk, which gained the most popularity in the 1950s, has resulted in longer lasting milk, and the ability to ship milk greater distances.
Not everyone is pleased with homogenized milk, and sometimes you can look for unhomogenized versions. These still may be pasteurized, but many come in raw milk versions, which can prove unsafe to drink. Though it must be said that many people drink raw milk with no ill effects, there is occasional bacterial contamination of raw milk that poses a potential health risk.
However, there are debates going on with the homogenized milk as studies point out it has ill-effects.
The good news is, soy milk is healthy, cheap, and easy to find as well as use. The bad news is...well, there really is no bad news! From a nutritional perspective, soy milk has almost as much protein as dairy milk, less fat, no cholesterol, and is a comparable source of calcium, since most soy milks are fortified. Vegetarians should make sure to find a brand that is fortified with Vitamin B12. Soy milk is an excellent dairy substitute for baking or for kids.
Each brand of soy milk is slightly different, so try a couple and see which one suits your taste buds best. Soy milk is increasingly popular, and many grocery chains make their own brand in a variety of flavours.
Rice milk is not as thick as soy or dairy milks, and has a somewhat translucent consistency. Because it is slightly sweet, rice milk works well in dessert recipes and is not suited for savoury or salty dishes, such as mashed potatoes. Compared to soy and almond milk, rice milk has less protein.
Almond Milk made from almonds or other nuts, such as cashew mik has a creamy consistency similar to soy milk and a nutty taste perfect for making fruit smoothies or other creamy drinks and desserts, though they don't taste much like dairy milk, and are best in non-savoury dishes.
Be sure to shake your almond milk well before using. If you can't find almond milk at your grocery store, try making a home-made almond milk or cashew milk. Here's how to use these milk substitutes:
SUBSTITUTES FOR COOKING:
Regular or unsweetened soy milk will work best in recipes such as pasta sauces, cream sauces, mashed potatoes, salad dressings and other savoury recipes that call for milk. Although a thick soy cream is best for creamy recipes such as non-dairy alfredo sauce, a reasonable facsimile can be made with a basic vegan roux.
If a recipe calls for buttermilk, add one tablespoon of white vinegar or lemon juice to a cup of soy milk and mix well. It's not quite as robust, but will have a similar flavour.
Dishes You Can Make with Milk
• 1 Cup Almonds (peeled and
• 1-1/2 Cup Condensed milk
•1 Cup Whipped cream
•1/4 tsp Powdered cardamom
•1/2 Cup Pistachios (chopped)
•Pinch of Saffron Cooking
•Mix all the ingredients except pista and saffron in a large bowl.
•Beat the mixture for about 2-5 minutes to make it soft.
•Now put this mixture in a conical mould.
•Sprinkle it with chopped pista-chios and saffron.
•Keep it for freezing for about 8 to 10 hours. Almond Kulfi is ready.
•1 Readymade graham cracker pie crust
•1 Can sweetened condensed milk
•Hot chocolate powder or cocoa
• 300 ml Cream
•Place the unopened can of condensed
milk in a saucepan and cover it with
•Bring the water to a boil then decrease slightly and let the can boil covered for about 2- 1/2 to 3 hours.
• Don’t ever let the saucepan boil dry, keep checking up on it and adding water if essential.
•Remove the can and wait for few minutes.
• Now open it the condensed milk will
look like creamy brown caramel.
• Stir the caramel in the can with the
fork to eliminate any lumps.
• Pour into your pie crust and let it cool,
place it into the refrigerator until cold.
•Cut bananas into thin pieces and lay them on the top of the toffee filling.
•Whip the cream and spread it over bananas.
•Dust the cocoa or hot chocolate powder on the top.
BLUEBERRY MAPLE BREAKFAST BAKE:
• 16 Eggs, beaten
• 8 oz. Cream Cheese, reduced-fat
• 2 loaves Egg challah or other White Bread (14 oz. Each)
• 4 cups Blueberries, fresh or frozen
• 1⁄2 cup Maple Syrup
• 1⁄2 cup Butter, melted
• 3 cups Milk
• Preheat oven to 350ºF. Remove the crusts from bread. Cutting in 1” cubes is fine. Cream cheese should be cut in small cubes.
• Take a baking dish which is in a
13*9*2 proportion and grease it .
Place the half of the bread cubes in the greased dish. Top it with the remaining bread cubes & blue-berries.
• Take a bowl and combine milk,
eggs, butter and maple syrup in
that. Carefully pour over the bread mixture. Bake it until a knife inserted comes out clean. It may take an hour to get ready. Cover it with aluminum foil if the edges brown so much.
• Cut it in squares and serve the
Exactly one week from now, the Major Dhyanchand National Stadium in the Indian capital will host the World Cup hockey, a championship involving top 12 hockey playing nations in an event that has been dubbed as the dress rehearsal for the mega sporting event in October, the Commonwealth Games.
It is after 28 years that India would be hosting the hockey World Cup, a far cry from the days when they were among the top hockey-playing nations of the world, having last won the Cup way back in 1975.
The International Hockey Federation (FIH) is serious with the promotion of the World Cup. In fact, it will be a test event for FIH for many such big hockey tournaments in near future. They have already tied up with corporates like Hero Honda and SAIL as commercial partners of the event.
FIH chief Leandro Negre has time and again underlined India's importance in the hockey world.
"The World Cup will act as a catalyst for Indian hockey. We know that the sport has a huge following in the country and we just have to promote hockey in the right way. This event will serve as a new beginning," says Negre.
Much is riding on the success of the tournament, considering that it comes just eight months before the Commonwealth Games and that questions have been raised about India's ability to host the mega-event in October.
But events of the past few weeks, like the postponement of Hockey India (HI) elections and the players revolt over non-payment of dues, have shown the country's hockey organisers in poor light.
The Major Dhyanchand National Stadium, named after one of India's hockey 'wizards', has been refurbished at a cost of Rs 262 crore ($57 million). It encompasses 36 acres in the heart of New Delhi and was the venue for the first Asian Games in 1951.
Interestingly, India are placed alongside Pakistan in the same group and the two fiercest rivals will turn back the clock when they meet on the very first day of the tournament under floodlights.
Even the organisers would hope so for the success of the tournament. India has hosted the World Cup only once, and that was in Bombay in 1982. That was played on natural grass.
The following teams are qualified for the Hero Honda FIH World Cup 2010:
Canada (Champion of the 3rd
Men's Pan American Cup)
Korea (Champion of the 8th
Men's Asia Cup)
South Africa (Champion of the
Africa Cup of Nations, 2009)
Australia (Champion of the 6th
Men's Oceania Cup)
England (Champion of the 12th
Men's EuroHockey Nations
Germany (Silver medalist of the
12th Men's EuroHockey Nations
Netherlands (Bronze medalist of
the 12th Men's EuroHockey
Spain (Fourth ranked team of the
12th Men's EuroHockey Nations
Pakistan (Winner of the Men's
World Cup Qualification
Tournament No. 1)
New Zealand (Winner of the
Men's World Cup Qualification
Tournament No. 2)
Argentina (Winner of the Men's
World Cup Qualification
Tournament No. 3)
What scenes we witnessed last week at Eden Gardens. Most office system administrators would have complained about heavy load on the network due to constant updates on cricinfo or cricket nirvana. Bhajji sealed the win, with last wicket in the penultimate over.
Most of us had given up looking at comfort level Amla and Morkel had during the innings. But in cricket all that you need one deliver for a batsman to get out. Thats the beauty of the game. Of course, the match situation and the bowler/captain's previous strategies to set up a wicket do count. Such things make test cricket special than say ODI or T20 where all it matters is to hit boundaries. Of course that's also an excitement but these scenes of great defense or holding up an end for 8 hrs like what Amla did is also fun for cricket lovers like me.
How many of us would prefer a pizza or a burger over tasty but simple home food like dal roti or pithale bhakri. Once in a while for change maybe we can opt for the junk food. Test cricket is also enjoyable. For that matter every version has a room, be it ODI or T20 or test. What we need is a balance. People in US get crazy over the fact that a game can go on for 5 days and yet there can be no result. In commercial world, it makes no sense. Also it's a national wastage of time resource. But still we love test cricket. We have generations growing over test cricket. I don't want to argue merit of other sports over cricket.
Fact is that Cricket has caught our imagination and so be it. There is no reason to be ashamed. Is US fan ashamed of the fact that their domestic teams play World Series for a sport which is only played in US? And its special when we know that India will win test no 1 prize this year, after 7 years of Australian dominance since its inception.
We flash back to the days of 80s and 90s. Then you had dominant teams like WI, Pakistan decimating us in India as also abroad. Even moderate teams like England or Australia used to compete hard here and defeated us abroad. We had great players in Gavaskar, Kapil, vengsarkar and fighters like Mohinder ,Madanlal, Kirmani. But we were at bottom of heirrarchy ahead of newborns Sri Lanka and kiwis.
In came 90s with decline of WI and rise of Australia under AB. We were completely sold on to ODIs with advent of satellite TV and liberalization with Sachin as national Icon. Our past ODI successes under Kapil, Gavaskar in 83 and 85 really started this phenomenon. But we also invented a formula : In Home test we had tailor made tracks where even Rajesh chauhan or a Raju could have won us game single handedly. It was fortune to have world class operator like Kumble to make a kill. But in overseas tour: 19 for 4 , or at best 50 for 2 , were the normal score lines.
The opening pairs were innumerable. We used to witness master class from Sachin in a losing cause. Some times an aggressive knock from Azhar or Kapil or VVS. All this happened till our horror show in Aus at the turn of millennium. Nadir was the lost home series against Proteas, (famous later for other reasons than those in the stadiums).
Ganguly is the man who changed the things. We anticipated this dawn when Sachin was made captain. But that did not work out. Some things never work out in life as we expect.
Ganguly, Kumble, VVS and Dravid were part of that team as well. But they were young, unproven and even their places were not granted. With advent of Ganguly, we started winning overseas. We had batsmen who could face music of fast bowlers. We had good pace men taking wickets and spinners who could be effective. Ganguly had an eye for talent and guts to back them.
Thus we had talent of Sehwag, Yuvraj, Bhajji, Zaheer, Dhoni (also not to forget Irfan, Balaji, Nehra, Parthiv) nurtured and matured. This is the core now even of the No1 test team today, in addition to the master class of Tendulkar, VVS, Dravid as well Kumble and Ganguly himself. This class had work ethics, attitude, resolve, which rubbed off on to juniors and took Indian cricket out of fixing chaos, home paper tiger status, poor traveler baggage. But only thing this batch has to achieve is an ICC trophy (only one shared champion's trophy to show).
T20 world cup winning team did not have any representation from this class. The last standing survivor of this batch has last chance in 2011. And I think that will be a great tribute, swansong and most romantic vision for all cricket lovers. This will be tribute to not only SRT but also to all five.
Another person who owes tribute is John Wright who backed Ganguly and his protégés. And also to board and selectors for backing Ganguly (of course they had some ulterior motive then under King of Calcutta). Then we had a debacle in form of Chappell-Dravid era. On test arena it did not hamper much apart from defeat in Pakistan, home series leveling against England and Pakistan.
Then injuries started creeping up for Tendulkar. Sehwag who later emerged under Kumble after Sydney test regaining his greatness was eclipsed in this period. Irfan faded; Zaheer had injury and fitness issues.
Bhajji was taken out of equation. Worst suffered loss was in World cup 07. But few credits must be given to Dravid for his conduct in Chappell and post Chappell era. We had success for first time in South Africa though we lost next two tests. We had series win in WI. We beat Srilanka at home. In Post chapel era we won series in England.
In came Dhoni with T20 success, but it was resolve of Kumble who was overlooked for captaincy. I think we could have much better results had he been given longer stint. Famous Sydney test started another chapter of decline of Australia. We beat them at Perth.
Its been a steady rise along with decline of Australia. So it resulted in a pack of Australia, India and SA at top with England just behind. . For india, we agree that we are not the best team now. We are yet to reach that level. We might be on top of rankings for now. But as long as we are able to win a series in SA and Australia there will be a debate about the real supremacy.
Author runs a blog http://nayakgiri.blogspot.com/
Aarey Milk Colony was established in year 1949. On March 4, 1951, Central Dairy, Aarey was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The Central Dairy, Aarey was constructed for processing and packing of milk which was collected from Aarey Milk Colony and to supply same to consumer of Mumbai city. This Dairy is pioneer of it's kind in entire Asia. After 1970, milk produced in mofussil area was also received in this dairy. It distribute milk in western suburbs of Mumbai City.
The history of the Aarey Plant dates back to Second World War when Municipal Corporation of Mumbai started milk distribution system to prevent of malnutrition pregnant ladies and children due to food shortage. This scheme was operational till 1946. After that civil supply department was operating this scheme.
As there were no facilities for boiling the milk, raw milk was supplied to British soldiers, officers, and employees. They were not used to drink raw milk which created health problem for them. The cattle sheds of Mumbai were in unhygienic conditions and rearing/nursing of cattle was done in unscientific ways. Due to this health problems surfaced in the nearby locality. To rehabilitate cattle shed of Mumbai in a more scientific way and to encourage clean milk production, in the year 1947, Aarey Milk Colony was established on a land of 1300 acres. .
To enable the citizens to get the pasteurized milk, in the year 1952 Asia's first dairy at Aarey was established. Now this has become a place to visit and see. Not surprisingly, Maharashtra government is planning to develop dairy tourism on the sprawling land belonging to Aarey Milk Dairy in Mumbai, Animal Husbandry, according to dairy development and Fisheries Minister Nitin Raut. The minister informed the Legislative Council in December that the proposal has been put before the cabinet for approval.
WHAT TO SEE
Aarey milk plant is the first in Asia to modernise the milk culture in the country through pasteurised and bottled milk supply. After doing chilling at centralised chilling facilities, the milk is transported to the milk plants in cans or tanks. However, nowadays tankers are more frequently used than the cans.
Milk is collected from the farm every 24 or 48 hours. After reaching the milk plants the process of pasteurisation and homogenisation takes place. There are two HTST pasteurisers and two homogenisers connected in series with them. The capacity of each pasteurizer and homogeniser is 5000 litres per hour.
At the entrance of the Aarey Colony there is a hill on which a special observation pavilion has been built. From the pavilion one gets a wide view of the entire colony and of the beautiful surrounding country. Besides the attractively built pavilion, where there are charts and maps showing the lay-out of the colony and explaining the scheme, very pretty lawns and gardens have also been laid out on the hill which add to the charm of the place.
The main attraction of the visitors is an inspection bungalow of the colony which is reputed to be the largest in Asia and one of the best of its kind in the world. Close to the Aarey colony has been developed a picnic spot. In order to assist holiday makers and encourage them in their outings, various shady spots have been especially prepared with arrangements for a stove, wooden seats round shade-spreading trees, and lawns. There are twelve such spots. Many of them also command excellent views. Facilities have also been provided for the canteen which serves snacks and meals and of course milk to the visitors. It is frequented by a number of visitors especially during the fair season. A number of BEST buses ply towards these spots.
According to, Babanrao Pachpute, minister for forest in the state cabinet, a zoological park of international standards will come up at the Aarey Milk colony. As per the forest department's proposal, the zoological park would come up over an area of 300 acres and birds, reptiles, marine life and animals would be kept in huge enclosures that would be very similar to a natural habitat. The zoological park would have parking area over a 2.5 acres plot. However, the project is delayed because of some hurdles.
Eternal youth is probably the oldest dream of mankind…
Unfortunately in our attempt to slow down the aging process we have become more obsessed with the use of cosmetic products. These cosmetics rely on the use of chemicals which infact harm our skin. But these harmful effects can surely be prevented by the use of homoeopathy, which is complimentary to nature and very much based on natural laws.
Homoeopathic remedies assist a person to regain health by stimulating body's natural healing force. More than 90% of homoeopathic medicines are derived from plants, flowers, herbs which are synonymous with nature and thus come without any harmful or toxic effects.
By the use of following homoeopathic medicines and combinations one can regain and retain the beauty for a longer period of time.
Some common skin conditions are as follows:
ACNE : Most unwanted problem of the youth. It is an outgrowth of toxic blood and fat. Prevention can be done by drinking lots of water, taking a proper sleep, eating healthy food instead of junk food, washing face 3-4 times with soap water.
HOMOEOPATHY CURE : Berberis aquifolium (mother tincture) can be applied externally on the affected area or by washing face with its solution in water. For internal medication use of medicines as Sulphur 30, Calc sulph 6, Staphysagria 30, Kali brom 6, Nat mur 6, Belladonna 30, Hepar sulph 30 or Graphites 30 helps (int. medication with doctors advice)
DARK CIRCLES : Stress, fatigue, lack of sleep, lack of nutrition, aging can lead to formation of dark circles around the eyes. Prevention can be done by drinking ample of water, massage around eyes with a cold cream or calendula ointment at night before sleep, use of cotton balls dipped in rose water or cucumber juice around eyes, paste of almond and milk under the eyes.
HOMOEOPATHY CURE: Calendula cream or lotion applied externally around the eyes. For internal use of medicines Calc phos 6, Cina 6, Cyclamen 30, Spongia 30, Sepia 30 can be used.
HYPER PIGMENTATION : It is asymptomatic but of great cosmetic concern. Prevention can be done by avoiding exposure to sun as much as possible, or use of a good sunblock or calendula cream.
HOMOEOPATHY CURE: Calendula mother tincture applied before and after on face neck and other areas exposed to sun helps prevent pigmentation as well as burning. Application of Hydrocotyle cream to make skin more supple and for anti-tan. Internally medicines as Sepia 30, Petroleum 30, Ars alb 6, Ars sulf flav 6, Con mac6, Arg nit 30, Plumbum met 30 can be used.
SUN BURNS : Exposure to very hot summers and sensitive ski n lead to these problems. Prevention by avoiding sun and splashing cold water over affected area can be done.
HOMOEOPATHY CURE: A bath with few drops of Hypericum and Calendula mother tinctures in water can help relieve the symptoms. Or simple application of Calendula cream. For internal medication use of Cantharis 30, Urtica urens 30, Belladonna 30, Pulsatilla 30, Glonine 30 can be done.
SKIN RASH : Common skin rashes develop on exposure to irritating substances or due to sensitive skin or viral causes. Prevention can be done by soothing the affected part with plain cold water.
HOMOEOPATHY CURE : A combination of Calendula and Hypericum cream can sooth the skin. Urtica urens mother tincture can also be applied on the affected part.
WRINKLES : Aging, pollution, lack of diet and nutrition, stress, reduced muscle tone are the factors that cause wrinkles. Prevention can be done by drinking lots of water, application of proper creams to maintain moisture content, proper sleep, proper healthy diet etc.
HOMOEOPATHY CURE: A combination of petroleum , calendula, hydrocotyle mother tinctures helps prevent as well as reduce wrinkles. For internal use medicines as Petroleum 30, Graphites 30, Hydrocotyle 30 can be used.
Homeopathy (also spelled homoeopathy or homœopathy) is a form of alternative medicine, first proposed by German physician Samuel Hahnemann in 1796, that attempts to treat patients with heavily diluted preparations which are claimed to cause effects similar to the symptoms presented. Homeopathic remedies are prepared by serial dilution with shaking by forceful striking, which homeopaths term "succussion," after each dilution under the assumption that this increases the effect of the treatment. Homeopaths call this process "potentization". Dilution often continues until none of the original substance remains
1. Regularly read a good business newspaper
(select only pertinent articles, save time).
2. Read at least one business magazine per
3. Read trade association magazines & good
books in the field of your interest. Make full
use of the data obtained.
4. Try to read six inspirational and self-
improvement books per year.
5. Talk to other business people as much as
6. Listen to business people as much as
7. Observe and keep current on business
procedures & conditions.
Eight (8) things we all want and need:
1. Health & the preservation of life.
4. Life in the hereafter.
5. The well-being of our children.
6. Money and things money will buy.
7. A feeling of importance &
8. Sexual gratification.
Positive Emotions :
1. Desire 2. Faith 3. Faith
4. Enthusiasm 5. Romance 6. Hope
Avoid Negative Emotions.
1. Fear 2. Jealousy 3. Hatred
4. Revenge 5. Greed 6. Anger
The six (6) things people fear most :
1. Poverty 2. Ciriticism 3. Poor health 4. Loss of love of 5. Old age someone
Recognizing these facts may help us to understand human nature and give reasons for what we ultimately do in our lives.
If you must be angry, then first :
Be angry :
1. With the right person. 2. To the right degree.
3. At the right time. 4. For the right purpose.
5. In the right way.
Remember, we are all creatures of emotion. First, ask yourself why they did what they did.
1. Forgiveness takes away guilt.
2. Forgetting takes away the obsession.
3. When we think of our own
need for forgiveness, it
becomes easy to forgive
These qualities considerably increase your odds of winning :
Hard work knowledge
Giving onself to others
With a little self-confidence, success minded motivation, a little creativity, a winners attitude, some effective communication and positive thinking, properly organized, we can make order and clarity out of any chaotic set of circumstances.
You might ask “Why has this guy, Dan, assembled this piece of literature and given it to me?” It’s very simple-I thought you might like to read it! If I can give something to someone that may help them enjoy life a little bit more, why shouldn’t I? If we all could give a little more than we take, we all would reap the rewards and be much better off.
Do you ever notice how refreshingly fun it is to be around positive thinking people who seem to naturally maintain a positive attitude? No matter how bad the circumstances, negativity never even enters their minds. However, encountering a positive person is a rare occurrence these days. Even though this statement sounds somewhat negative.
Why is it so much easier to have a negative attitude than a positive one? What's inside of us that just naturally pulls us toward the negative side?
We read the books. We attend the seminars. We buy the tapes, and things seem to go well for awhile. We feel better. Our outlook is improved, and we're hopeful. Until something happens that sends us reeling all over again.
It doesn't even have to be a major, catastrophic event to send us back to the land of negative thinking. It can be something as simple as someone cutting us off in traffic or pushing ahead of us in the grocery checkout line. What gives those seemingly simple occurrences of every day life so much power to literally throw us into a tizzy all over again?
So how do we put a stop to all this nonsense? How do we get to a place where our positive attitude is what's natural for us and not the other way around?
The good news is that there are some things we can do to help transition from the land of negativity to a much more positive place.
Positive Thinking Tips for a Positive Attitude - Permanently
* FIRST : Focus on what you're thinking about. Our negative actions and words are coming from our negative thoughts. Our body, including the mouth, has no choice but to follow wherever our mind goes.
It is possible to control our thoughts, regardless of what we've been led to believe. As soon as a negative thought comes into your mind, purposefully make it a point to replace it with a positive one. At first, this may take some work, because chances are, we will probably have a lot more negative thoughts in our head than positive ones. But eventually, the ratio will reverse itself.
* SECOND : Stop letting other people's negative attitudes influence yours. This may mean we need to stop hanging around with people who do nothing but spout negative stuff. The negative people in our life aren't going to like it when we stop participating in negativity.
* THIRD : Make a list of all the areas in your life that you want to change. List all your negative attitudes too. If you can't think of things to put on your list, just ask family.
* FOURTH : Take some time to write strong, life-giving, positive affir-mation statements. Make a commitment to read those statements out loud every day. Know in your heart that you're making progress, even if you can't see it just yet. Just keep affirming the positive.
* Lastly, take time to pray about this. You can't change by yourself. But you can spend time with the One who is able to help. Do what you can, and let God do the rest. It really is that simple.
This process will change how we think and that's the real key to changing how we act. (Source: www.about.com)