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Saturday, February 13, 2010

Edition 10 Energy Crisis in India

India is making a lot of progress with more new billionaires being minted every month. The focus on software industry sometimes takes away from what are more pertinent problems- Water and Power.

It is no wonder that VCs have identified water and energy as the mega opportunities for the next few decades.
The crunch of energy has led Indian strategists to believe that the only solution to India's power problems is Nuclear Power as a result we signed the Nuclear Deal to import fuel and technology. Power problems are faced by all developing nations and United States of America too went through such a crisis in the 70's. As a result of it, presidents Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter promoted the use of renewable sources of energy like solar power and also increased the mileage standards for the automobiles from 13.5 miles per gallon to 27.5 miles per gallon. This helped to create a global oil glut during mid 1980's. But as things eased off, the focus was shifted. When Ronald Regan became the president, he let the tax incentives lapse for the Solar Energy Research Institute and stripped of the solar panels in the white house installed there at the time of Jimmy Carter. He also reduced the mileage standards to 26 miles per gallon.
Looking at India's energy model, we are adopting a model, quite similar to US model. Taking a stock of successful energy models, Denmark's model is the most inspiring. Denmark also faced an energy crunch in the 80's and as its power demands grew, it had to look for alternative sources of energy. At that time, 99% of Denmark's energy requirements were met by the middle east oil. To change that scenario, the government decided to go against nuclear, and went ahead with the scheme of levying high taxes. Japan too adopted such an approach. In Japan there is higher tax on bigger vehicles and the taxes on oil per gallon are also very high. In Denmark, to reduce electricity consumption, a CO2 tax was introduced. When the consumers saw a CO2 tax in their bills, they automatically resorted to an energy conservation approach. You might think that Denmark's economy would have slowed down. No, it has risen by about 70% since 1981 and there is only about 2% of unemployment there.
The model of nuclear powered energy model has also been successful and countries like France get 78% of their electricity requirements from nuclear energy. But the atomic path has had its fare share of negative effects. The two major accidents that have happened in the nuclear era has been that of Chernobyl in Russia in 1986 and the partial meltdown of core at three mile island in 1979. So it is a very risky proposition. But since we have decided now to power our economy forward to follow a high energy print, we could be in for tough times ahead, in terms of our oil consumption. Being an agricultural nation we could have come up with a more ingenious solution, similar to that followed by
Brazil, when it started a national program to produce ethanol from sugarcane. Today, between the domestic oil production and the ethanol industry it does not need to import oil. India today is highly depended on oil. Now that global oil prices have gone down, the government is thinking to reduce the price of petrol and diesel, rather than helping out the oil companies to recover their losses incurred during the last few years. Right now there seems to be a gloomy prognosis for our economic recovery, which is heavily dependent on energy and power.
India had to curb its high-polluting coal consumption in the near future or risk burning through its reserves.
India was projected to import 750 million tonnes of oil and 1.4 billion tonnes of coal a year by 2031 and 2032.
According to the International Energy Agency, more than half of the world's energy demands by 2030 will come from India and its fellow emerging economic powerhouse China.
Already among the world's top 10 oil importers, India is expected to become the world's fourth-largest by 2025, according to US government data.
The Ministry of Coal projected India's coal imports for 2008-2009 to be around 58 million tonnes.
Coal currently provides just under 55 percent of the country's massive electricity needs, resulting in a huge carbon footprint on account of the country's 1.2 billion population.
India should improve energy efficiency and make a very rapid move to use more renewable sources of energy.
While the state is facing power shortage and with no sustainable solution visible
In the near future, experts feel that renewable energy resources could be highly effective in solving problem
Though solar energy, if made grid specific, can do wonders in solving the energy crisis of the state, lack of political will-power is the biggest hurdle in effective propagation and subsequent use to generate electricity.
According to an expert on renewable energy resources, "Solar energy is the ultimate solution. The wind sector is progressing fast and as of today, India is generating 7,400 MW of electricity through wind. Solar photovoltaic is lagging behind due to some hurdles."
Solar thermal is already well accepted in the country. Solar dryers, water heaters have directly contributed in conservation of electricity. But due to some technological limitations solar photovoltaic has failed to gain necessary popularity.
Though at present, it is very costly option, the much desired breakthrough will soon be achieved to make it cost effective.
Another problem is that of storing the electricity. Conventional batteries are very costly and have a life span of around two-and-half years. These batteries are suitable for small scale power generation. Unless the technology allows us to develop efficient storage devices which are cost effective too, solar photovoltaic is going to remain confined in limited domain.
Grid interactive solar energy is getting popular in other European countries as it does not require a battery to store generated energy which is actually the biggest trouble.
Solar plates tap the solar power and provide it to grid where it gets stored. People who install solar panels get money for maintaining it in addition to the earnings through the sale of power.
Renewable energy resources like small hydro, micro hydro, wind, solar thermal, biomass-based stand-alone power generation units have really succeeded in India, whereas there is no serious study for tapping the potential of geothermal energy. Potential of wave and tidal energy remains untapped just without any satisfactory reason.


 Total consumption of electricity in state in 2007-08 was 69,883
MKWH (Million Kilo Watt Hours). It was 12.5% more than the previous year.
 At the end of 2007-08, the installed capacity of electricity generation in the
state 16,614 MW. The total installed capacity availabe to the state was
21,654 MW because of 5,040 MW of central allocation.
 This increase was because of addition of 500 MW of thermal power, 428
MW by renewable sources and 233 MW by nuclear source.
 In the power generation, thermal generation had a share of 51%, Hydro-
power 17%, Renewable sources 13%, Natural Gas 11%, Nuclear power 2%
and captive power had a share of 6%.
 The total generation of electricity, renewable sources included, during 2007-
08 was 79,721 MKWH. In it, government company Mahagenco had a share
of 66%. Tata Power followed with 15% and Reliance Energy with 6%.
 The Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company purchased 78,836
MKWH during 2007-08. It costed Rs 15,262 Crores while the previous year,
Rs 11,706 were spent for the purchase.

Edition 10: Government incentives for power generation

Private equity and venture capital firms have invested $527m in power sector, 24 per cent of the total transaction value in India for the period Jan. 2005 and 21 July 2009. In terms of transaction value, this accounts for only 24 per cent of total transaction value, but in terms of deal count has a substantial share, according to the report.
Kuljit Singh, partner and transactions advisory leader for Infrastructure, Real Estate and Government, Ernst & Young, said, 'The recent years have seen the emergence of several funds with cleantech themes, venture capital backed development companies being set up to aggregate assets in India, growth of carbon financing, etc. With this, greater depth will emerge on the PE/ VC investments front.'
In fact, 20 of the 37 transactions between January 2005 and 21 July 2009 were by PE/VC players. The PE/VC players are chasing up the innovative players, while several funds with specific renewable energy mandates have contributed to the transaction activity. PE/VC transactions activity peaked in 2008 with $301m investments, but has slowed down during the current year due to the global financial and credit crisis. The activity is expected to pick up again in the near term.
PE/VC transactions include Moser Baer (investor CDC Group, Credit Suisse, IDFC, Morgan Stanley and Nomura International); SE Forge (investor IDFC); Vestas RRB India (investor Merrill Lynch); Orient Green Power Company (investor Olympus Capital); Cobol Technologies' (investor Pangea Capital).
According to Kuljit, 'In the near time frame, a significant number of assets are expected to change hands with some of the existing project owners refocusing efforts on core areas, raising finances by selling non-core assets and de-leveraging balance sheet in case of assets which are on the balance sheet of the main company etc.'
The renewable energy space is attracting various types of developers/ investors pursuing both organic and inorganic expansion strategies. Key emerging players include conventional energy developers looking to diversify into clean energy, large international utilities wishing to participate in the Indian opportunity, private equity backed renewable energy development companies, companies with existing renewable energy assets looking to expand their portfolio etc.
India has seen significant transaction activity with deals worth $2155bn announced between January 2005 and July 2009. The average deal size (based on deals with announced value) stood at $69.5m during the same period. Suzlon's acquisition of REPower, worth $1.327bn accounts for 61.6 per cent of transaction activity in value. Another significant transaction was Gammon India's acquisition of a 50 per cent stake in Sofinter for $101bn.
Wind energy has the maximum share of approximately 79 per cent of the transactions in the renewable energy space during January 2005 and 21 July 2009, the report said.
'Growth in this segment will not just be driven by business rationale, but also be necessitated by serious environmental concerns. However, a lot depends upon the extent of Government's fiscal and policy support to this sector,' added Kuljit.
According to Ernst & Young, India, like many developing countries is facing increasing international pressure to reduce its greenhouse emissions. Although, India has one of the lowest per capita rates of energy consumption and pollution in the world, it's indeed one of the polluters due to its large population size. The country has immense Renewable Energy (RE) potential, which, if harnessed, can help it control its emissions, without compromising on its economic growth, and also bridge the supply deficit to an extent. The sector-wise break of the total RE potential in India is - wind energy (48,561MW); small hydro power (15,000MW); and biomass (120-150 million tonnes of surplus biomass per year can be converted into 16,000MW).
Huge demand-supply gap in power, depletion of fossil fuels and energy security have been the key drivers behind sustained investments in the sector, the report said. India has also initiated programmes and incentives to induce rapid growth in the sector. Government incentives such as Generation based incentives (GBI), accelerated depreciation, tax holidays and subsidies are a step in the right direction.
The Government has outlined ambitious capacity expansion and investment plans for the eleventh five year plan period (FY07 - FY12). It has proposed an addition of 15,000MW of RE generation capacity during the period. Wind power projects form 70 per cent (10,500MW) of the proposed capacity addition, while Small Hydro Projects (SHP) account for 9.3 per cent (1,400MW). The total investments on development of RE during the plan period is expected to be about $2bn.

n State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERC) have been mandated to promote RE, through renewable purchase obligations, which require discoms to source up to 10% of their power from RE sources.
n The key wind energy incentives include a provision for 80% a 10-year tax holiday, income tax accelerated depreciation in the first year, waiver on power sold to utilities and favorable tariffs.
n Projects that do not claim accelerated depreciation benefits are entitled to generation-based incentives (GBI) that provides INR0.5/kWh of power sold, for Independent Power Producer (IPPs) with capacity >5 MW
n India offers several subsidies to solar power systems, such as solar lanterns, home lighting systems, etc., and GBI of up to INR12/kWh for power plants
n For SHP projects, incentives include concessions on customs duty, 10-year tax holiday and other state-level incentives including sales and electricity tax exemptions and preferential tariffs. These include capital subsidies.
n Incentives for biomass energy include accelerated depreciation, import duty concessions, excise duty exemption and a 10-year tax holiday. The incentives also include capital subsidies. Various export incentives have made India a key player in the global wind turbine generator (WTG) and solar PV cells market.

Edition 10: Readers feedback

Dear Readers
Response to our cleanliness edition was excellent. Following are few comments which we got for cleanliness edition:
The house cleaning tips were really useful. We really look forward to such useful tip.
Deepali Modi, Aundh
Please highlight efforts for National Society for clean cities which is operational in India. Such initiatives will really help. To know more please visit
Amruta Jagtap, Pashan
Keep the lakes and creeps clean
Then beauty is what is seen
Working-together don't pollute
Citizens are proud Like soldiers who salute Clean surroundings can make even a mundane house feel like a treasured home. Everyone enjoys his space more fully while taking advantage of numerous health and wellness benefits. One has to understand the importance of having a simple, organized home, and take steps towards creating an atmosphere that aids home relaxation, and have your home the way you want it, you will want to hold onto the sense of peace and order you have created. It's easy for busy people to backslide into messy surrounding after a few weeks. So here are some important steps mentioned to keep the surroundings clean:- 1)Clean regularly, 2) Stay organized, 3) Hire a helper, 4) Create peaceful zones, 5) Use your machine, 6) Avoid telemakers and junk mails, 7) Automatic bill payment & 8) Don't stress over a little mess.5th September, The World Environment Day is a symbolic indication of understanding the value of society. Cleanliness depends as much on people's habits as on the effectiveness of a town council. Spot checks are not an ideal way to gauge how clean an estate is. When I see litter It makes me mad It makes our Earth look bad. When I see a field full of litter It makes me bitter. So please put your trash in can That's a very good plan!
Urmi Chowdury
The environment in which we live plays a pivotal role in our health and exuberant life. Grubby and squalid surrounding fosters deadly germs, bacteria and disease carriers that can imperil the health and wealth of a locality as a whole. Hence it is an intrinsic requisite of any society to keep its surroundings clean and tidy. Almost all of you spruce up your homes by sweeping, dusting and mopping and make it a heaven for you, but often carelessly throw the garbage outside on the sides of nearby alleys, by-lanes, streets or on open grounds.
During the morning leisure walk we often come across people spitting, urinating and even defecating with impunity, especially so in the rural areas and outskirts of the cities. It is often not a willful act, but compulsive due to lack of proper sanitary arrangements near around. In the past various models and approaches were tried to clear away these debris and to keep the surroundings clean. But the results were, more or less, unpromising. The participatory involvement of local people only can ensure clean environment. Sensitize the general public on this burning issue and create widespread environmental and civic awareness by promoting community/street dwellers directly to involve in a voluntary effort in waste collection, removal, and recycling by forming small associations of 'green keepers' and keeping their environ-ment clean and green.
VR Nair
In this edition, we talk about energy. We take a look at energy crisis impending on us and how we need to explore alternate energy. For country like India, solar energy is something we feel a need to tap more effective. We need great R&D efforts to overcome challenges. We remain to be silent on nuclear energy due to international politics involved, but safety remains a great concern looking at what happened at Kaiga recently as well as at Chernobyl few decades earlier. We need some inputs from experts regarding this topic. Cityblog is open for discussion. We have full fledged online blog for all of you to raise your comments. You can send your inputs about how power wastage is happening around you.

Edition 10 : Dr Homi Bhabha

Born: October 30, 1909
Died: January 24, 1966
Achievements: Founded Tata Institute of Fundamental Research; was the first chairman of India's Atomic Energy Commission; was chairman of the first United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held in Geneva in 1955.
Homi Bhabha, whose full name was Homi Jehnagir Bhabha, was a famous Indian atomic scientist. In Independent India, Homi Jehnagir Bhabha, with the support of Jawaharlal Nehru, laid the foundation of a scientific establish-ment and was responsible for the creation of two premier institutions, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Homi Bhabha was the first chairman of India's Atomic Energy Commission.
Homi Jehangir Bhabha was born on October 30, 1909, in Bombay in a rich Parsi family. After graduating from Elphinstone College and the Royal Institute of Science in Bombay, he went to Cambridge University. He received his doctorate in 1934. During this period he worked with Niels Bohr on the studies that led to quantum theory. Homi Jehnagir Bhabha also worked with Walter Heitler on the cascade theory of electron showers, which was of great importance for the understanding of cosmic radiation. He did significant work in identifying the meson.
Due to outbreak of Second World War, Homi Jehangir Bhabha, returned to India in 1939. He set up the Cosmic Ray Research Unit at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore under C. V. Raman in 1939. With the help of J.R.D. Tata, he established the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Mumbai. In 1945, he became director of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.
Apart from being a great scientist, Homi Bhabha, was also a skilled administrator. After independence he received the blessings of Jawaharlal Nehru for peaceful development of atomic energy. He established the Atomic Energy Commission of India in 1948. Under his guidance Indian scientists worked on the development of atomic energy, and the first atomic reactor in Asia went into operation at Trombay, near Bombay, in 1956.
Homi Bhabha was chairman of the first United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held in Geneva in 1955. He advocated international control of nuclear energy and the outlawing of atomic bombs by all countries. He wanted nuclear energy to be used for alleviating poverty and misery of people.
Homi Bhabha received many honorary degrees from Indian and foreign universities and was a member of numerous scientific societies, including the National Academy of Sciences in the United States. He also authored many articles on quantum theory and cosmic rays. Homi Bhabha died in an aeroplane crash in Switzerland on January 24, 1966.

Edition 10: Solar Energy

You've probably seen calculators that have solar cells -- calculators that never need batteries, and in some cases don't even have an off button. As long as you have enough light, they seem to work forever. You may have seen larger solar panels -- on emergency road signs or call boxes, on buoys, even in parking lots to power lights.
Although these larger panels aren't as common as solar powered calculators, they're out there, and not that hard to spot if you know where to look. There are solar cell arrays on satellites, where they are used to power the electrical systems.
You have probably also been hearing about the "solar revolution" for the last 20 years -- the idea that one day we will all use free electricity from the sun. This is a seductive promise: On a bright, sunny day, the sun shines approximately 1,000 watts of energy per square meter of the planet's surface, and if we could collect all of that energy we could easily power our homes and offices for free.
In this article, we will examine solar cells to learn how they convert the sun's energy directly into electricity. In the process, you will learn why we are getting closer to using the sun's energy on a daily basis, and why we still have more research to do before the process becomes cost effective.
Photovoltaic Cells:
Converting Photons to Electrons -
The solar cells that you see on calculators and satellites are photovoltaic cells or modules (modules are simply a group of cells electrically connected and packaged in one frame). Photovoltaics, as the word implies (photo = light, voltaic = electricity), convert sunlight directly into electricity. Once used almost exclusively in space, photovoltaics are used more and more in less exotic ways. They could even power your house. How do these devices work?
Photovoltaic (PV) cells are made of special materials called semi-conductors such as silicon, which is currently the most commonly used. Basically, when light strikes the cell, a certain portion of it is absorbed within the semiconductor material. This means that the energy of the absorbed light is transferred to the semi-conductor. The energy knocks electrons loose, allowing them to flow freely. PV cells also all have one or more electric fields that act to force electrons freed by light absorption to flow in a certain direction. This flow of electrons is a current, and by placing metal contacts on the top and bottom of the PV cell, we can draw that current off to use externally. For example, the current can power a calculator. This current, together with the cell's voltage (which is a result of its built-in electric field or fields), defines the power (or wattage) that the solar cell can produce. That's the basic process, but there's really much more to it. Let's take a deeper look into one example of a PV cell: the single-crystal silicon cell.
Anatomy of a Solar CellBefore now, our silicon was all electrically neutral. Our extra electrons were balanced out by the extra protons in the phosphorous. Our missing electrons (holes) were balanced out by the missing protons in the boron. When the holes and electrons mix at the junction between N-type and P-type silicon, however, that neutrality is disrupted. Do all the free electrons fill all the free holes? No. If they did, then the whole arrangement wouldn't be very useful. Right at the junction, however, they do mix and form a barrier, making it harder and harder for electrons on the N side to cross to the P side. Eventually, equilibrium is reached, and we have an electric field separating the two sides

Edition 10: Colors & Time

Red laa-l, tvaa-M-ba-daa
White paa-n-dhva-raa
Black kaa-hlaa
Green hi-ra-waa
Blue ni-hlaa
Yellow pi-wa-hlaa
Orange naa-ra-N-gee
Violet jxaa-M-bha-hlaa
Grey ka-ra-daa
Lighter Color fi-kkaa ra-N-ga,
Dark Color ga-da-dva ra-N-ga
Calendar (dvi-na-dva-r-shi-kaa )
In Maharashtra, western calendar is widely followed in business and everyday life. The week is of seven days but days are named differently than English names. The festivals and traditional events are observed according to pa-N-chaa-N-ga (almanac).
For all practical purposes Marathi people follow English calendar. So, all month names are same as that in English.
Year wa-r-hsha
Month ma-hee-naa
Week aa-tha-wa-daa
Sunday ra-wi-waa-r
Monday so-ma-waa-r
Tuesday ma-N-ga-hla-waa-r
Wednesday bu-dha-waa-r
Thursday gu-ru-waa-r
Friday shu-kra-waa-r
Saturday sha-ni-waa-r

TIME (we-hl)
Day dv-wa-s
Hour tvaa-s
Minure mi-nee-t
Second se-ka-Ndva, ksha-tna
Evening sa-N-dhyaa-kaa-hl
Afternoon dvu-paa-r,
Night raa-tvra
Morning sa-kaa-hl
Midnight ma-dhya-raa-tvra
Dawn pa-haa-t

Edition 10: Energy Saving Tips


Energy Saving Home Tips
The following table shows the energy consumption of various appliances normally used at home:

Incandescent Bulbs 40 6 7
60 6 11
Flourescent Tube light 40 10 12
Night Lamp 15 10 4.5
Mosquito Repellent 5 10 1.5
Fans 60 15 27
Air Coolers 175 8 42
Air Conditioners 1500 6 270
Refrigerator 225 15 101
Mixer / Blender 450 1 13.5
Toaster 800 0.5 12
Hot Plate 1500 0.5 22.5
Oven 1000 1 45
Electric Kettle 1500 1 45
Electronic Iron 1500 1 45
Water Heater-Istnat Type 3000 1 90
(1-2 Ltr. Capacity)
Immersion Rod 1000 1 30
Washing Machine 300 1 22.5
Water Pump 750 1 22.5
TV 100 10 30
Audio System 50 2 3

By following these simple tips can save energy to a large extent.
Lighting : Turn off the lights when not in use
n Take advantage of daylight by using light-colored, loose-weave curtains on your windows to allow daylight to penetrate the room. Also, decorate with lighter colors that reflect daylight
n De-dust lighting fixtures to maintain illumination
n Use task lighting; instead of brightly lighting an entire room, focus the light where you need it
n Compact fluorescent bulbs are four times more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs and provide the same lighting
n Use electronic chokes in place of conventional copper chokes.
Fans : Replace conventional regulators with electronic regulators for ceiling fans
n Install exhaust fans at a higher elevation than ceiling fans
Electric iron : Select iron boxes with automatic temperature cutoff
n Use appropriate regulator position for ironing
n Do not put more water on clothes while ironing
n Do not iron wet clothes
Kitchen Appliances -
Mixers : n Avoid dry grinding in your food processors ( mixers & grinders) as it takes longer time than liquid grinding
Microwaves ovens : Consumes 50 % less energy than conventional electric / gas stoves
n Do not bake large food items
n Unless you're baking breads or pastries, you may not even need to preheat
n Don't open the oven door too often to check food condition as each opening leads to a temperature drop of 25°C
Electric stove : n Turn off electric stoves several minutes before the specified cooking time
n Use flat-bottomed pans that make full contact with the cooking coil
Gas stove : n When cooking on a gas burner, use moderate flame settings to conserve LPG
n Remember that a blue flame means your gas stove is operating efficiently
n Yellowish flame is an indicator that the burner needs cleaning
n Use pressure cookers as much as possible
n Use lids to cover the pans while cooking
n Bring items taken out of refrigerators (like vegetables, milk etc) to room temperature before placing on the gas stove for heating
Use Solar Water Heater a good replacement for a electric water heater
Electronic Devices : Do not switch on the power when TV and Audio Systems are not in use i.e. idle operation leads to an energy loss of 10 watts/device
Computers : Turn off your home office equipment when not in use. A computer that runs 24 hours a day, for instance, uses - more power than an energy-efficient refrigerator.
 If your computer must be left on, turn off the monitor; this device alone uses more than half the system's energy.
 Setting computers, monitors, and copiers to use sleep-mode when not in use helps cut energy costs by approximately 40%.
 Battery chargers, such as those for laptops, cell phones and digital cameras, draw power whenever they are plugged in and are very inefficient. Pull the plug and save.
 Screen savers save computer screens, not energy. Start-ups and shutdowns do not use any extra energy, nor are they hard on your computer components. In fact, shutting computers down when you are finished using them actually reduces system wear - and saves energy
Refrigerator : Regularly defrost manual-defrost refrigerators and freezers; frost buildup increases the amount of energy needed to keep the motor running.
 Leave enough space between your refrigerator and the walls so that air can easily circulate around the refrigerator
 Don't keep your refrigerator or freezer too cold.
 Make sure your refrigerator door seals are airtight
 Cover liquids and wrap foods stored in the refrigerator. Uncovered foods release moisture and make the compressor work harder.
 Do not open the doors of the refrigerators frequently
 Don't leave the fridge door open for longer than necessary, as cold air will escape.
 Use smaller cabinets for storing frequently used items
 Avoid putting hot or warm food straight into the fridge
Washing machines : Always wash only with full loads
 Use optimal quantity of water  Use timer facility to save energy  Use the correct amount of detergent  Use hot water only for very dirty clothes  Always use cold water in the rinse cycle  Prefer natural drying over electric dryers
Air Conditioners : Prefer air conditioners having automatic temperature cut off
Keep regulators at “low cool” position
 Operate the ceiling fan in conjunction with your window air conditioner to spread the cooled air more effectively throughout the room and operate the air conditioner at higher temperature  Seal the doors and windows properly Leave enough space between your air conditioner and the walls to allow better air circulation  A roof garden can reduce the load on Air Conditioner  Use windows with sun films/curtains  Set your thermostat as high as comfortably possible in the summer. The less difference between the indoor and outdoor temperatures, the lower will be energy consumption.  Don't set your thermostat at a colder setting than normal when you turn on your air conditioner. It will not cool your home any faster and could result in excessive cooling.  Don't place lamps or TV sets near your air-conditioning thermostat. The thermostat senses heat from these appliances, which can cause the air conditioner to run longer than necessary.
Plant trees or shrubs to shade air-conditioning units but not to block the airflow. A unit operating in the shade uses as much as 10% less electricity than the same one operating in the sun.

Edition 10 : Quiz


I'm France, the land of Eiffel Tower and Zizou Zidane. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Franc o
euro o
pound o
Dollar o
"I'm the United Kingdom, the land of Big Ben and Beckham. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Pound o
euro o
kroner o
yuan o
I'm the United States, the land of Walt Disney and the Grand Canyon. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Euro o
Yen o
Peso o
Dollar o
"I'm Argentina, the land of Maradona and the Pampas grasslands. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Dinar o
Dollar o
Peso o
Real o
I'm Brazil, the land of Ronaldinho and the Amazon rain forest. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Real o
Pound o
Euro o
Franc o
I'm China, the land of the Great Wall and the fastest train in the world, the Maglev. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Yen o
Rupiah o
Yuan o
Dollar o
I'm Japan, the land of cherry blossoms and Sumo wrestling. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Dinar o
Dollar o
Euro o
Yen o
I'm Russia, the land of ballet and the world's largest country in size. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Ruble o
Euro o
Pound o
Dollar o
I'm Indonesia, the land of the Bali and Javanese Ramayana, and I'm spread across the equator. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Rupee o
Rupiah o
Dinar o
Real o
I'm Thailand, the 'land of Smiles' and of Pagodas. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Baht o
Ringitt o
Pound o
Dollar o
"I'm South Africa, the land of Nelson Mandela and Gandhi's Tolstoy Farm. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Dollar o
Euro o
Rand o
Kroner o
"I'm Botswana, the land of the Kalahari desert and a proud democracy in Africa. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Pula o
Dollar o
Kroner o
Euro o
"I'm Bangladesh, the land of Nobel Peace Prize winner for 2006, Muhammad Yunus and of coastal mangrove forests. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Rupee o
Taka o
Dinar o
Dollar o
I'm Saudi Arabia, the land of the Bedouin and the world's largest petroleum producer and exporter. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Dinar o
Dirham o
Riyal o
Ringitt o
I'm Turkey, the land of Nobel writer Orhan Pamuk and the Bosphorous. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Dinar o
New Lira o
Dirham o
Dollar o
I'm India, the land of the Taj Mahal and the Bengal Tiger. My currency is:"
Choose one of the following:
Rupee o
Rupiah o
Dollar o
Euro o
Cody should answer “No”
Brook is either a knave or a spy.
If Brook is a spy, then Alex is truthful and is therefore the knight.
Alex is a Knight. Brook is a Spy.
Cody is a Knave.
On the other hand, if Brook is the knave, there are two possibilities.
Alex is a Spy. Brook is a Knave.
Cody is a Knight.
Or Alex is a Knight. Brook is a Knave . Cody is a Spy.
If Cody is either the knave or the knight, his answer to the question will he “No”, and so the judge will not be able to draw a conclusion. On the other hand, Cody can answer “Yes” only if he is the spy.
Alex, Brook, Cody, Dusty and Er in recently found out that all of their birthdays were on the same day, though they are different ages.
On their mutual birthday, they were jabbering away, flapping their gums about their recent discovery. And lucky me, I was there. Some of the things that I overhead were...
l Dusty said to Brook “ I’m nine
years older than Erin”
l Erin said to Brook “ I’m sevenyears older than Alex”
l Alex said to Brook “Your age is exactly 70% greater than mine.”
l Brook said to Cody “ Erin is younger than you”
l Cody said to Dusty “ The difference between our ages is six years”
l Cody said to Alex “ I’m ten years older than you”
l Cody said to Alex “ Brook is younger than Dusty”
l Brook said to Cody “ The difference between your age and Dusty’s is the same as the difference beetween Dusty’s and Erin’s”
Since I knew these people - and how old they were, I knew that they were not telling the whole truth.
After thinking about it, I realized that when one of them spoke to someone older, everything they said was true, but when speaking to someone younger, everything they said was false.
How old is each person?

Edition 10: Finger Puppet


Make a finger puppet for your little sister, and watch her squeal with joy.
Things you need:
1. Bits of card sheets or thick paper.
2. Sketch pen or crayons.
3. Fevicol.
4. Scissors.

Step 1: Draw the outline of a figure that you want to make a puppet of. It could be a human puppet, an animal, a bird or even inanimate objects like a time piece, or a bucket. Let your imagination run wild. Draw a crazy figure.
Step 2: Colour it and cut out the figure on the outline.
Step 3: Take a strip of paper (6x2cm). Make a ring out of it. Stick this ring on the back of the cutout.

Step 4: Put the ring on your finger and see how the puppet moves.

General Post Office 26127825
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City Post Office 24475058
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Bhumi 26614222
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PMPL 24440417
Airport Authority 26685201
Indian Airlines 24260938
Air India 26128190
Chest Hospital 27280237
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Edition 10 : News


A. R. Rehman, who is known as the Music Storm in his home state, bagged two more prestigious awards for his composition. The music director was awarded two Grammy Awards for his work in movie Slumdog Millionaire.
Rehman received two Oscar Awards for the same work last year. In a gittering ceremony held on Sunday night, he was given one Grammy for best music compilation for a movie while another Grammy was given for the song 'Jai Ho' as the best motion picture song. The latter award was given jointly to him and Gulzar, who penned the famous song.
Rehman is again in the race for the Oscar Awards for the music given to the movie 'Couples' Retreat.' He displayed his characteristic humble-ness at the Grammy Awards ceremony when he said, “This is insane. God is great.” His competitors for the awards were Bruce Springsteen in the song category and Quentin Tarantino in the soundtrack category.
Grammy is considered to be the Oscars of the music industry. In the past, maestros like Ustad Amjad Ai Khan and Ustad Zakir Hussain have failed to get the awards even after being nominated for the awards.

India celebrated its 61st Republic Day with pomp and gaiety. The nation brimmed with pride for having completed 60 years of democracy. The achievement becomes special in the backdrop of failure of countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh to work without military governments.
Each year, a foreign head of govern-ment is invited to the Republic Day parade. The occasion is used as a medium of showing the development and might of the country. South Korea's president Myung-bak was the guest of this year's parade in New Dellhi. Various tableau & per-formances of the artisans from all over the country also make a point of attraction in the parade.
This year, 21 tableaux were at display. Among them, the tableau of Ministry of Culture, which was put up by Sangeet Natak Academy won the first prize. The tableau based on the theme of International Film Festival, put up by government of Goa won the second prize. Chhattisgarh's showcase, based on Kotumasr caves, won third prize.
A. K. Antony, Minister for defense gave away the awards on Jan. 31st. 2010 in New Delhi.
Leander Paes of India got his 11th Tennis Grand Slam title when he won Australian Open Mixed Doubles title on Sunday. He and his partner Cara Black of South Africa defeated Russia's Ekaterina Makarova and Czechoslovakia's Jaroslav Levinsky in the final by 7-5, 6-3 at Melbourne Park. It was Paes and Black's second major together after losing in back-to-back finals at the Wimbledon and the US Open last year. Their only title had come in US Open in 2008, their first outing as a team. This was 36-year-old Paes' 11th Grand Slam title. He equalled with compatriot Bhupathi, also his one-time doubles partner. Paes now has six doubles and five mixed-doubles titles. It was also his second Australian Open mixed doubles title having won his first in 2003 with Martina Navratilova.
It was Paes and Black's second major together after losing in back-to-back finals at the Wimbledon and the US Open last year. Their only title had come in US Open in 2008, their first outing as a team. This was 36-year-old Paes' 11th Grand Slam title. He equalled with compatriot Bhupathi, also his one-time doubles partner. Paes now has six doubles and five mixed-doubles titles. It was also his second Australian Open mixed doubles title having won his first in 2003 with Martina Navratilova.
Paes showed his concern for the fellow countrymen when he said that the title is for the Indians in Australia. This was a reference to the recent spate of incidents when Indians in Australia were consistently attacked because of racial discrimination.
Roger Federer became the winner of Australian Open beating Andy Murray by 6-3, 6-4 and 7-6.
Six policemen from Pune area including a women inspector from the city were rewarded with President's Medal this year. The awards were declared by the union government on the eve of republic day.
Inspector Sushma Chavan is the first woman officer from Pune Police to receive the President's Medal. She is presently posted in Foreigners Registration Branch in Commi-ssionerate of Pune. She joined the police fore in 1987 and has received 186 rewards for solving many cases.
Assistant commissioner of police Dattatrey Datar also received the medal. He joined the police force as a sub-inspector in 1979. He has killed three criminals in encounter so far.
Head constable Parshuram Jagtap, Inspector Vishnu Jagtap of Regional Poice Training School, deputy inspector general of police Sarabjit Singh and Dr. C. B. S. Chouhan of Reserve Police Force were also chosen for the award. Inspector Vishnu Jagtap has received 157 rewards & has solved cases of dacoity. Head Constable Parshuram Jagtap has received 375 rewards in 30 years of service.
The much-awaited Pune Metro rail project has inched forward with the civic body approving the Detailed Project Report (DPR) to be forwarded to Maharashtra and Central government for its clearance.
With NCP, Congress, Shiv Sena and MNS supporting the ambitious proposal which envisages a 31.59 km long metro line going through underground and elevated rails, the civic administration is now faced with the task of funding the project which in its first phase is estimated to cost Rs 6,000 crore.
The Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) which hopes to complete the first phase comprising two corridors connecting travel points in this fast expanding satellite city of Mumbai by 2014-15, will be confronted with the recommended freezing of all developmental work along the proposed routes negotiating densely populated areas. The PMC approved the Pune Metro Rail project on Jan. 27 after a six-hour long debate. The proposal was cleared through a voting in which 88 votes were in favour of and one against the proposal. The project report has been prepared by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation after studying the situation in Pune. However there is some opposition to the plan from some NGOs consisting of few retired officers from Indian Railway

Edition 10: Commonwealth games status

Infrastructure : Delhi already has many international features of a modern and well-planned city. However, to get ready for the huge influx of tourists visiting Delhi during the Games, the Government of India has taken many steps to improve the city. This includes city beautification, transportation development, upgrading of many old structures etc.
Transport : Transport in Delhi.
Delhi BRT
Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi.
Delhi metro : Road Transport
Delhi proposed a four-lane, 2.2 km underground stretch from Lodhi Road to trans-Yamuna, linking the Games Village to the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium and reducing traveling time for athletes traveling between the Village and the Stadium by 6 minutes.
In response to concerns over the large number of trains that pass by the Delhi metropolitan region daily, cons-truction of road under-bridges & over-bridges along railway lines has been started.
To expand road infrastructure, flyovers, cloverleaf flyovers, and bridges have been planned to provide connectivity to the Games Village, to sports venues, to hospitals, and for intra-city connectivity. Road-widening projects have been under process, with an emphasis being placed on expanding national highways. To improve traffic flow on existing road, plans are underway to make both the inner and outer Ring roads signal free.
To support its commitment to mass transport, nine corridors have been identified and are being constructed as High Capacity Bus Systems (for example, one from Ambedkar Nagar to Red Fort). Six of these corridors are expected to be operational in 2010.
Delhi Metro: Additionally, The Delhi Metro will be expanded to accommodate more people and boost the use of public transport during the 2010 games. By then it will have the second longest network in the world and later the longest, which will be more than 420 km. The Akshardham Metro Station was recently opened by the Delhi Metro. To achieve this exponential increase in the network's length, the Delhi Metro has deployed 14 tunnel boring machines (TBMs). The Delhi Metro reports that no country in Asia has ever put to work so many TBMs at the same time.
Air Transport : To further support air travel, the Indira Gandhi International Airport is being modernized, expanded, and upgraded. By the 2010 games, a new terminal (Terminal 3) will have been constructed at a cost of nearly US$ 1.94 billion, with the capability to cater to more than 37 million passengers a year by 2010 and the planned expansion program will increase its capacity to handle 100 million passengers by 2030. Terminal 3 will be a two tier building, with the bottom floor being the arrivals area, and the top being a departures area. This terminal will have over 130 check in counters, 55 aerobridges, 30 parking bays, 72 immigration counters, 15 X-ray screening areas, duty free shops, and much more. The airport will also have a new runway to cater more than 75 plus flights an hour; the runway will be more than 4400 meters long and one of Asia's longest. The entire airport will be connected to the city via a 6 lane highway (National Highway 8) and the Delhi Metro.
Energy consumption : To prepare for the energy-usage spike during the Games and to end chronic power cuts in Delhi, the government is undertaking a large power-production initiative to increase power production to 7,000 MW (from the current 4,500 MW). To achieve this goal, the government plans to streamline the power distribution process, direct additional energy to Delhi, and construct new power plants. In fact, the government has promised that by the of 2010, Delhi will have a surplus of power.
Security : In preparation for the Games and to promote security at major tourist destinations, Indian states will be deploying a force of "tourist police" far before the Games begin. These tourism police are regular state police forces, but will be trained to handle tourist-related aspects. A number of states have already implemented this program; other states are expected to emulate this model within the end of the year.
Delays : In September 2009, Commonwealth Games federation chief Mike Fennell reported that the games were at risk of falling behind schedule and that it was "reasonable to conclude that the current situation poses a serious risk to the Common-wealth Games in 2010". A report by the Indian Government released several months prior found that construction work on 13 out of the 19 sports venues was behind schedule. The Chief of the Indian Olympic Association Randhir Singh has also called expressed his concerns regarding the current state of affairs. Singh has called for the revamp of the games' organizing committees commenting that India now has to "retrieve the games". Other Indian officials have also expressed dismay at the ongoing delays but they have stated that they are confident that India will successfully host the games and do so on time.
The Queen's Baton Relay : The Queen's Baton 2010 Delhi containing Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II's 'message to the athletes' left The Buckingham Palace on 29 October 2009. The baton will arrive at the Opening Ceremony of the XIX Commonwealth Games 2010 Delhi some 11 months later on 3 October 2010, after visiting the other 70 nations of the Commonwealth and travelling throughout India.The Queen's Baton Relay 2010 Delhi will take the baton to the home of one third of the world's population, enabling many millions of people across the globe to join in the celebrations for the Games.
The Queen's Baton 2010 Delhi is a fusion of handcrafted elements interplayed with a precision engi-neered body, and ornamented with an intricate hand layered soil pattern.The shape and design of the baton is created using a triangular section of aluminium which has been twisted in the form of a helix and then coated with a diverse range of coloured soils collected from all corners of India. The interweaving of coloured soils, including white sands, deep reds, warm yellows, dark browns and an array of other hues creates a very distinctive design, form and texture never before seen in the styling of a Queen's Baton.
The very essence of India with its diversity & unrelenting endeavour towards a harmonious and progressive nation has shaped the inspiration of the baton. Culminating at the pinnacle of the Queen's Baton 2010 Delhi is a precious jewellery box containing the Queen's 'message to the athletes'. The Queen's message has been symbolically engraved onto a miniature 18 carat gold leaf, representative of the ancient Indian 'patras'. Modern laser technology known as micro calligraphy has been used for the first time to reproduce the Queen's message in this method.
The Queen`s Baton 2010 Delhi stands at 664 mm. high is 34 mm. wide at the base, and 86 mm. wide at the top and weighs a mere 1,900 grams. The baton's ergonomic contours allow for convenient holding and good balance.
The Queen`s Baton has been created using processes and technologies existing in India by Foley Design in partnership with Titan Industries and a technology consortium led by Bharat Electronics Limited.
The technology features of The Queen's Baton for Delhi 2010 include:
>>The ability to capture images and sound as it travels throughout all nations of the Commonwealth;
>>The latest global positioning system (GPS) technology through which the exact location of the baton can be tracked on the XIX Commonwealth Games 2010 Delhi website;
>>Embedded light emitting diodes (LEDs) which will change into the colours of a country's flag whilst in that country; and
>>Text messaging capability so that anyone anywhere can send their messages of congratulations and encouragement to the Batonbearers throughout the Queen`s Baton Relay 2010 Delhi. The baton was designed by Michael Foley, A graduate of the National Institute of Design.
Green Games
Logo for the Delhi 2010 Common-wealth Games being recognized as the first ever "Green Commonwealth Games"
The construction and renovation of the venues for the XIX Commonwealth Games 2010 Delhi are being undertaken keeping in mind the Green vision of the Games. Measures in terms of energy efficiency, water conservation, etc., have been taken to reduce the carbon emissions from Games related activities. One of the venues of the Games, the Thyagaraj Stadium, is going to be a model Green Stadium with world class facilities in India. The Games Village which will house over 8,000 athletes and officials for the Games is also proposed to be setting new standards for green infrastructure.
The strategic intention of hosting 'sustainable games' has been pursued by signing a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the United Nations Environment Programme. This strategic intention has been initiated for supporting environmental activities by UNEP related to planning and staging of the XIX Common-wealth Games 2010 Delhi. UNEP has agreed to provide necessary technical support for the Games.
The Thyagaraj Stadium will be the venue for Netball during the Games. Built over an area of 16,000 square metres and with an audience capacity of 4,494, the venue is being constructed by the Delhi Government. The latest green building technologies have been employed at the Thyagaraj Stadium such as the use of fly ash bricks in construction. The venue will feature effective water management systems such as rainwater harvesting, sewage treatment with 2 lakh litres a day capacity, dual flush systems, sensor based faucets, etc. Innovative landscaping is being done with an emphasis on native species and reduction in soil toxicity. In terms of energy efficiency, the Thyagaraj Stadium is setting a benchmark. Solar energy will be used for lighting purposes. In addition, the implemen-tation of the building integrated photovoltaic concept will take place. As a result, Thyagaraj Stadium will start feeding electricity to the grid.
In addition, the implementation of the building integrated photovoltaic concept will take place. As a result, Thyagaraj Stadium will start feeding electricity to the grid.
Other preparation : In addition to physical preparation, India and Delhi will be offering a myriad of amenities to all athletes. These include traditional Common-wealth Games services, such as free accommodation for all athletes, a modern, comfortable Games Village, cutting-edge health facilities, security, a pollution-free environment, entertainment for non-competition times, transportation, and other, unique amenities as well. Delhi will also be offering all athletes a free trip to the famed Taj Mahal and will provide a reserved lane for participants on selected highways.
The Delhi High Court is also set to implement a series of "mobile courts" to be dispatched throughout Delhi to relocate migrant beggars from Delhi streets. The mobile courts would consider each beggar on a case-by-case basis to determine whether the beggar should be sent back to his/her state of residence, or be permitted to remain in government-shelters.

Edition 10: One vs Many

It's an old equation, individuals poised against mobs. One guy's opinions/ideas/thoughts/creativity/ expressions pitted against
sensibilities / thought processes of many (say society). What's right and what's wrong? Thoughts initially opposed vehemently by masses, gain acceptability and these thoughts themselves entrench so much into masses that they themselves become dogma. Is there anything absolute or has to be taken into perspectives of many parameters like time, geography, religion, society etc etc...
You may wonder what got me into this debate: It started with certain paintings, movies, plays being boycotted and people behind it being portrayed as protagonists by media to have carried banner of 'freedom of expressions'. I am firmly against those media favorites who blabber their way on main news channel. I think all real intellectuals should invite these media darlings to stand actual (not convenient...) point of reasoning... anyways that's besides the point.
Freedom of expression comes with responsibility. For an idea to come to its age, needs persuasion and not brow beating.
We live in civilized society which makes laws and regulations for its own benefit. In absence of those, we still would have lived in caves. Now there might be some laws that may not be acceptable to few but still one has to follow them. Similarly there are collective sensibilities & mannerisms which cannot be depicted in legal or constitutional framework. It's the duty of constitution to safeguard freedom to express against anything. But it is the responsibility to incumbent to cater to collective sensibilities. Does that mean an artist has to sacrifice his thoughts and confirm to mass mentality. I firmly say No, he can still say what he wants to but he has to adapt and evolve just as companies do to make their product more suitable to customers.
There is a lesson here as art can be compared with any other trade to satisfy public's senses which are their customers. Art cannot be within itself when no one likes that...
They are not islands. They need to evolve and innovate to suit their audience...
But their freedom to express must be guaranteed and also it's the artist's responsibility to meet both the ends..
Its as simple issue, don't need to give any other connotations....
Author runs a blog http//

Edition 10 : Positive Attitude

We should try to do these things better :
1) Encourage others to talk about themselves.
2) Talk in the interest ranges of the things that people treasure most when talking to them.
3) Talk to people about themselves & recognize their importance.
4) Respect other people’s good judgement and avoid arguments.
5) Never tell anyone they are wrong, we all will rationalize to the point
of thinking we are unequivocally right.
6) We should criticize ourselves before other people have a chance to; if you
are wrong, admit it!
7) Tread softly, you will go farther.
8) We should try to let our friends feel as though they have excelled us at some
time or another.
9) Let others do a great deal more of the talking.
10) Figure out why other think as they do; look at it from their viewpoint.
11) Show compassion to others (this is yearned for).
12) Treat people with respect, dignity, honesty, truth fulness and willingness;
they will generally emulate those feelings.
13) Challenge others to do something better, never force them.
14) Call attention to mistakes indirectly (don’t broadcast).
15) Make difficulties seem easy to conquer.
16) Praise minutest improvements; and inspire hidden treasures in others.
17) Be friendly.
18) Force yourself to smile! (You will.)
19) Consider other’s good points.
20) Make others want to follow your suggestions.
21) Always appreciate people’s time.
22) Be interested in everyone you meet.
23) Always remember, good manners are made up of petty sacrifices.
24) Remember names; a person’s name is truly the most treasured phrase to
that person’s ears. Use the I.R.A. Principles to help remember name :
I. R. A.
(what do they look like) (Repeat their names 5 times) (What do they do)
25) Try saying this three (3) times, “Act enthusiastic and you’ll be
enthusiastic”, it works.
26) Perfect yourself first, then worry about everyone else.
27) Try to exercise a little sympathy, tolerance and kindness; it goes a lot
further than a short fuse.
28) Learn the difference between appreciation and flattery; one is from the
heart, the other is from the teeth.
29) Accept the fact that everyone is superior to you in one way or another, and
learn from that trait.
30) When not engaged in some definite problem-solving, most people think of
themselves 95% of the time. If we could cut it to 50%, the results would be
31) Why should people be interested in you and me, unless we are first
interested in them?
32) We are all interested in what we want; be a little different be interested in what the other person wants and needs (get the other person’s point of view and see things from his angle as well as your own). Be interested in helping others, not only yourself.
33) Try to do things without ulterior motives.
34) If we do things that require time, energy, unselfishness and thoughtfulness,
we will make many friends.
35) The ability to listen is rarer than almost any other trait. (Listen and Learn.)
36) This is an old one - “do unto others as you would have them do unto you.”;
We all know who wrote do unto them.
37) Do unto others as they would have you do unto them.
38) When dealing with people, use little phrases like, “I’m sorry to trouble
you”, “Would you mind”, “Thank you”, they are the hallmark of good
39) Be wiser than other people if you can, but not tell them so.

Edition 10: MBS visit

New Business School is a leading business school in Netherlands. Round Table India has an opportunity to
interact with students and professors on regular basis. As a part of their curriculum, they have an international charity section. They decided to raise funds in Netherlands for worthy Round table India school projects. After a lot of scrutiny of worthy charities they zeroed on work of Round table in Building schools all around India. Within Round Table they had invited proposals from various table units. We at PRRT105 had proposed our permanent project Nerlekar School at Khadakwadi for this purpose. Based on short listing, our project was one of the three projects in area they selected. As a part of process they arrived in Pune for cultural understanding as well as school visits. There were 12 students and Prof Rammers who accompanied them. They attended Antarnad program by Art of Living where 2000 vocalists performed. They had industrial visits to Tata Motors and Volkswagen. They enjoyed stay in
families and also had few social parties hosted by tablers.
On saturday 16th Jan, we took them to our school at Khadakwadi. They were visiting rural area for first time. They realized the stark difference in India which parties in city and Bharat which lives in villages. They were really moved when they were informed about economic status of students and hardships they face. They were presented to a musical welcome and cultural show which they thoroughly enjoyed. They also saw self defense demonstration by girls. They were introduced to national integration theme songs. They really enjoyed it.
They understood school building construction plan. They realized that there was no library so they decided to help that cause. They had already committed 3500 Euros funding for the building. In addition they donated cricket sets to the school. They were interested to see kitchen where midday meal is served.
The highlight of event was all NBS students mobbed by school children from villages for autographs and photos. It was touching sight. They mixed with children nicely while some even dancing with them.
Really a satisfying experience for all tablers of 105...
To know more about Round Table India and its mission to educate underprivileged children please visit or contact 9766677559 for details on Nerlekar school at Khandakwadi.

Edition 10: Rajgad

Rajgad literally meaning King of forts, is one of the most impressive forts of Maharashtra state in India. Situated in the Pune district, the fort is approximately 4250 feet above sea level.
Formerly known as Murumdev, it was capital of the Maratha Kingdom (Hindavi Swarajya) ruled by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj for almost 26 years, after which he moved to Raigad and made that his capital.
Treasure found on adjacent Torna Fort was used to fortify this hill.
The fort can be divided into four different parts based on geographical terrain and fortification. These are the three sub-plateaux (Machee) namely Padmavati Machee, Suvela Machee and Sanjevani Machee, and the central volcanic plug called Ballekilla (meaning "small fort").
Padmavati lake at the summit of Rajgad Fort Padmavati Machee (north end) This machee is the site of Padmavati Temple, Padmavati Lake, Chor Darwaja, Pali Darwaja, Gunjavane Darwaja, Daru Kothar (storage of arms and ammunition), Diwankhana, Rajwada (ruins), Ghod Tale (Horse Lake), Sadar (office) and Dhalkathi (flag hoisting place).
First Glimpse : Sanjeevani Machee (southwest/west end). This huge, beautiful and royally constructed machee faces west and has a three-stepped (layered) fortified structure. Each of the lower levels is separated from the higher one by a fortified bastion with a gate that could be defended independently. The lowest level is beautifully fortified by double curtain walls (chilkhathi) separated by a deep trench, on average 12 feet across. One can walk between these walls. The outer wall has openings to let soldiers out for sudden attack.
Suvela Machi as seen from Ballekilla Suvela Machee (south east). This is another grand machee facing east with lots of secret routes and doorways.
after climbing up to the base of fort This one is a double-stepped fortified machee with the steps separated by a beautiful bastioned doorway. At the end of first step a hole cuts across the rock; one can sit on this hole (nedhe).
The final (lowest) step like Sanjeevani Machee is has a double curtain wall.
To the south side of this machee one can find a beautiful triangular bastion called Kaleswari buruz having an escape door near it. The home of the renowned military leader Tanaji Malusare was in this machee.
Bale Killa (centre) : This is the highest part of the fort which has remains of palaces, water cisterns and caves. It has a beautiful entrance door called Mahadarwaja. One can view the whole fort and the vast surrounding expanse.
Rightfully this fort is called King of Forts. As it was fort where the king lived. No trekker who swears by trekking can miss visiting this fort. Pack your sack & head towards Rajgad.

Edition 10 : Commercial Space