Free Cityblog Live News App

Free CityBlog Live News App has taken Pune by storm with hundreds of downloads. Get to know Pune news as it happens. Be first to know. Important National, business, International, sports also covered. Get useful Traffic, utilities (water cuts, etc),calamity updates. From your android smart phone type

Friday, January 29, 2010

Edition 9: Effluent Treatment Plant

Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical & biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with many toxic organic and inorganic compounds.
Sewage can be treated close to where it is created (in septic tanks, biofilters or aerobic treatment systems), or collected and transported via a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant (see sewerage and pipes & infrastructure). Sewage collection and treatment is typically subject to local, state and federal regulations and standards. Industrial sources of wastewater often require specialized treatment processes (see Industrial wastewater treatment).
Conventional sewage treatment may involve three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment. Secondary treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary treatment is typically performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Secondary treatment may require a separation process to remove the micro-organisms from the treated water prior to discharge or tertiary treatment. Tertiary treatment is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary treatment. Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example by lagoons and microfiltration) prior to discharge into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.
Pre-treatment removes materials that can be easily collected from the raw wastewater before they damage or clog the pumps and skimmers of primary treatment clarifiers.
The influent sewage water is strained to remove all large objects carried in the sewage stream. This is most commonly done with an automated mechanically raked bar screen in modern plants serving large populations, whilst in smaller or less modern plants a manually cleaned screen may be used. The raking action of a mechanical bar screen is typically paced according to the accumulation on the bar screens and/or flow rate. The solids are collected and later disposed in a landfill or incinerated.
Pre treatment may include a sand or grit channel or chamber where the velocity of the incoming wastewater is carefully controlled to allow sand, grit and stones to settle.
In the primary sedimentation stage, sewage flows through large tanks, commonly called "primary clarifiers" or "primary sedimentation tanks". The tanks are large enough that sludge can settle and floating material such as grease and oils can rise to the surface and be skimmed off.
Secondary treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage such as are derived from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent.
Secondary treatment systems are classified as
 fixed-film or  Suspended-growth.
Fixed-film OR attached growth system treatment process including trickling filter and rotating biological contactors where the biomass grows on media and the sewage passes over its surface.
In suspended-growth systems, such as activated sludge, the biomass is well mixed with the sewage and can be operated in a smaller space than fixed-film systems that treat the same amount of water
Main article: Activated sludge
In general, activated sludge plants encompass a variety of mechanisms and processes that use dissolved oxygen to promote the growth of biological floc that substantially removes organic material
The final step in the secondary treatment stage is to settle out the biological floc or filter material and produce sewage water containing very low levels of organic material and suspended matter.
Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems, which are robust and capable of withstanding surges in organic load.
The purpose of tertiary treatment is to provide a final treatment stage to raise the effluent quality before it is discharged to the receiving environment (sea, river, lake, ground, etc.). More than one tertiary treatment process may be used at any treatment plant. If disinfection is practiced, it is always the final process. It is also called "effluent polishing".
1) Filtration 2) Nutrient removal
3) Nitrogen removal 4) Phosphorus removal 5) Disinfection 6) Odor removal.
Few reliable figures on the share of the wastewater collected in sewers that is being treated in the world exist. In many developing countries the bulk of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged without any treatment or after primary treatment only

No comments:

Post a Comment

About CityBlog

My photo
CityBlog Pune is weekly paper launched by Orange Publications and Productions Pvt Ltd. It aims to create a forum where each issue will be followed up. We will have citizen to express and not just read what others have to say. Just like an on + offline blog